The last men will be all alike, like herd animals, enjoying simple pleasures and mediocrity, afraid of anything too dangerous or extreme
Zarathustra suggests that humans are great only as a bridge between animal and overman. Humans are not the be all and end all of existence, as the "last men" would see themselves. We are still largely governed by our animal instincts, which lead us to prejudice, superficiality, and to easy reliance upon faith. In order to refine our being, we must turn our instinct for cruelty upon ourselves, and carve away at our prejudices, superficiality, and faith, creating something deeper. Zarathustra speaks of the triumphant moment where we look with contempt upon all the human qualities that we once valued. This would signify our triumph over our shallow, human nature, and our progress toward the overman.
There is no life;this life is all there is”
Meekness and Acquiescence are not virtures: Ruthless self-examination ,even self- contempt are the ways to perfection
Happiness is not the ultimate goal.Happiness is mediocre and pathetic
“Man is something that shall be overcome”
“Do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather then overcome man?
What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment.
You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm.
Once you were apes and even now ,too,man is more ape than any ape
Remain faithful to the earth.
Those who put faith in the otherworldly-Despisers of life are they, decaying and poisoned themselves ,of whom the earth is weary: so let them go.
“Once the sin against god was the greatest sin: but God died and these sinners died with him
To sin against the earth is now the most dreadful thing and to esteem the entrails of the unknowable higher than the meaning of the earth—understand that you are disgusting that you are a worm,that you are nothing but a product of the earth,in many ways youa re what you were in the beginning.
“Once the soul looked contemptuously upon the body ,and then this contempt was the highest: she wanted the body meager ,ghastly and starved.Thus she hoped to escape it and the earth.—to the point of death,so that worms could feast on her soul.
“Verily ,a polluted stream is man—man is worm.
What is the greatest experience you can have? The hour in which your happiness too arouses your disgust and even you reason and you virtue
Happiness,reason,virtuejustice,pity“It is poverty and filth and wretched contentment.”
“Man is rope tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss”
“What is great about man is that he is a bridge and not an end”
“They have something of which they are proud. What do they call that which makes them proud? Education they call it; it distinguishes them from goatheards.”
“I say unto you:one must still have chaos in oneself to be able to give birth to a dancing star. I say unto you : you still have chaos in yourselves.
“Alas the time of the most despicable man is coming,he that is no longer able to despise himself”—and see the inner WORM
alienation and disoriented anxiety
that a man is now a large insect--and does not look back, with no nods or winks or unambiguous signs as to how we should proceed.
Although Gregor wakes up as an insect in outward, physical form, some of his more internal elements undergo a more gradual metamorphosis. But soon, his human voice disappears and his preferences grow more insect-like. With time he masters the coordination of his new body. He thinks less and crawls on walls and ceilings. But his consideration for his family's feelings seldom wavers
Only after Gregor's death does the liberation of their spirits occur, self-respect truly bloom, and the future become a bearable thought.
“AS Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed into a gigantic insect.”
“What has happened to me he thought?It was no dream.”
What about sleeping a little longer and frgetting about all this nonsense,he though, but it could not be done, for he was accustomed to sleep on his right side and in his present condition he could not turn himself over”
“He tried it at least a hundred times,shutting his eyes to keep from seeing his struggling legs,and only desisted when he began to feel lin his side a daint dull ache he had never experienced before.”
“What an exhausting job I’ve picked on?”
“This getting up early he thought makes one quite stupid.”
Does everything according to his boss and his parents.Lives veritably like an insect,like scum.
“ The porter was a creature of the chiefs—spineless and stupid.”
Did his best to make his voice sound as normal as possible by enunciating the words very clearly and leaving long pauses between them.”
“and he looked forward to seeing this morning’s delusions gradually fall away”
“ it was impossible to stay in bed and the most sensible course was to risk everything for the smallest hope of getting away from it”
He’s not well.What else would make him miss his train.The boy thinks nothing but of his work.”
It makes me cross the way he never goes out in the evenings ; he;s been here the last eight days and has stayed at home every single evening.”
“I thought you were a quiet ,dependable person ,and now all at once you seem bent on making a disgraceful exhibition of yourself”
“He paid no attention to the pains in the lower part of his body,however they smarted.”
That was no human voice!”
He felt himself ddrawn once more into the human circle and hoped for great a remarkable results from both the doctor and the locksmith.”
“Well,” said Gregor,knowing perfectly that he was the only one who had retained any composure ,”I’ll put my clothes on at once,pack up my samples and start off.Will you only let me go?”
Once can be temporarily incapacitated.
Gregor was settled for life in this firm,and besides they were so occupied with their immediate troubles that all foresight has forsaken them
“And without remembering that he was still unaware what powers of movement he possessed without even remembering that his words in all possibility ,indeed in all likelihood ,would again be unintelligible,he let go the wing of the door ,pushed himself through the opening.”
“This was really no joke”
“What a quiet life our family has been leading.”
But what if all the quiet,the comfort ,the contentment were now to end in horror?
“He scuttled under the sofa,where he felt comfortable at once ,although his back was a little cramped and he could not lift his head up,and his only regret was that his body was too broad to get the whole if it under the sofa.”
HE quickly devoured the cheese,the vegetables,and the sauce.”
Lateron, when she had got a little ised to the situation – of course she would never get completely used to it—she sometimes threw out a remark which was meant kindly.”
“ This made him realize how repulsive the sight of him was to her,and that it was bought to go on being repulsive/\
“Don let me in to Gregor, he is my unfortunate son! Can’t you understand that I must go to him?
“Doesn’t it look as if we were showing him ,by taking away his furniture,that we have given up hope of his ever getting better and are just leaving him coldly to himself?
“Did he really want his warm room,so comfortably fitted with old family furniture to be turned into a naked den in which he would certainly be able to crawl unhampered in all directions but at the price of shedding simultaneously all recollection of his human background?”
“Being sad and weary to death”
“I’m hungry enough,” said Gregor sadly to himself,” But not for that kind of food. How these lodgers are stuffing themselves.and here am I dying of starvation~”
Was he an animal that music had such an effect on him?
“ you must try to get rid of the idea that this is Gregor.The fact that we’ve believed it for so long is the root of all our trouble.Bit how can it Gregor? If this were Gregor, he would have realized long ago that human beings can’t live with such a creature ,and he’d have gone away on his own accord.”
“He tought of his family with tenderness and love.The decision that he must disappear was the one that he held to even more strongly than his sister.”
Gregor's predicament is much like that of any person suffering from severe, particularly disfiguring, chronic illness or disability. Gregor's life story and personal identity change dramatically when he becomes a vermin. In the new identity his senses are different: the hospital across the street is now beyond Gregor's range of vision. His abilities change. Shifts in spatial arrangements circumscribe Gregor's movements. His voice is transformed. Some of Gregor's changes are generated from within; some are conditioned by the world's reaction to his metamorphosis.
Other metamorphoses also occur in the story. Gregor's family see his predicament as an affront to them (after all, they expect Gregor to support the family). They withdraw from him, try to contain the damage, but in the process begin to change their own life stories as well--Gregor's father, who had been disabled, mobilizes and goes back to work; he changes from being an "old man" to a bank official "holding himself very erect." Gregor's sister also gets a job and seems on the verge of a new life.
"The Metamorphosis" can also be seen as a reaction against bourgeois society and its demands. Gregor's manifest physical separation may represent his alienation and inarticulate yearnings. He had been a "vermin," crushed and circumscribed by authority and routine. He had been imprisoned by social and economic demands: "Just don't stay in bed being useless . . . . "
In a psychoanalytic interpretation, The Metamorphosis prevents the imminent rebellion of the son against the father. Gregor had become strong as a result of his father's failure. He crippled his father's self-esteem and took over the father's position in the family. After the catastrophe, the same sequence takes place in reverse: son becomes weak, and father kills him.
Overall, the Metamorphosis primarily deals with the faults of human nature, and that is the inability to accept the unknown and the inability to go past physical appeIn the "Metamorphosis" Kafka uses metaphor to show the lack of communication in the relationships between the members of an ordinary low class family. To show that relationship he turns the main character, Gregor Samsa into an insect: "As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect" (Kafka, Selected Short Stories, pg. 20). The metaphor is here right away, in the impossibility of communication between humans and an insect. Samsa's family doesn't want to be connected to him in any way any more. They don't even want to see him so he tries to keep out of their way and stays in his room all the time. But he can't accept the fact that his family is rejecting him just because he changed his shape but stayed mentally the same. Actually we are not sure through the whole story who Gregor Samsa is and how to perceive him: as a human being with his feelings and mind or just as an simple insect, an animal that we are disgusted by.
The same attitude is represented by Gregor trying to please everyone and thus becoming someone or rather something he is not. The metamorphosis itself can be regarded as a metaphor of the idea that compliance with everyone‘s wishes causes a loss of identity. ”O God, he thought, what an exhausting job I‘ve picked on! [...] If I didn‘t have to hold my hand because of my parents I‘d have given notice long ago.”6 This transformation is triggered by the society created during the Industrial Revolution since it demanded of workers the typical characteristics of an insect in a colony, such as conformity and collaboration to be a valid member, while attitudes essential to humanity and individualism were suppressed.
''Great indebtedness does not make men grateful, but vengeful; and if a little charity is not forgotten, it turns into a gnawing worm.''